Laparoscopic surgeries are also known as minimally invasive surgeries (or keyhole surgery). It is one of the most advanced and modern surgical methodologies employed. In comparison to open procedures, laparoscopic procedures use only 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm incisions in the body. Incisions are far away from the actual site of repair. There are several advantages for laparoscopic procedures, one of the main ones being the reduction of bleeding and pain. The surgery uses a laparoscope which consists of a long, thin telescope and a fibre optic cable with a camera fitted at the end of it. Laparoscopic cameras, which are being used now, are high definition cameras with high quality images, which help surgeons to perform high quality and precise operations. Cold light sources such as halogen and xenon are used to light up the operative field. Carbon dioxide is insufflated into the abdomen enabling easy entry of a cannula or a trocar (measuring 5 mm or 10 mm) that is inserted through the incisions. Magnified images captured by the lens are transmitted to a computer screen to aid the surgeon in performing the procedure. Other instruments that aid in laparoscopic surgeries are the stapling device for the division and reconnection of the intestine and electrocautery is used to cauterize blood vessels and tissues.
Advantages of laparoscopic surgery:
Fast and quick healing times incisions are small thereby shortening recovery times
Reduced post-operative scars
Blood loss is considerably reduced, thus eliminating the need for blood transfusion
Less pain after the surgery ingestion of pain medications is minimized
Hospital stay is much less compared to open form of surgery
Internal organs are not over-exposed thus reducing the chances of acquiring infections
Other types of laparoscopic surgery:
Hand-guided laparoscopy The hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery is slightly different from the standard laparoscopic surgery. The incision is large enough (about 2 3 inches) and allows the surgeon to pass a hand into the abdomen to conduct the operation. A laparoscope will still be used and along with all other instruments used in laparoscopic procedures.
Single-incision surgery Also known as the single-site surgery is another form of minimally invasive surgery. As the name suggests, only one incision (lengthwise 2 3 cm) is made. Through this, all the operating instruments and the laparoscope are inserted. One of the primary advantages of this procedure is drastically minimized scarring.