Hyatid cysts are a result of parasitic infestation caused by the genus Echinococcus which is a tapeworm. They remain asymptomatic even after they have advanced. The degree of symptoms depend on the size of the cysts, the site and the load of the parasite.
There are four types of echinococcosis:
Signs and symptoms
Hyatid cysts in the liver is usually asymptomatic. In advanced stages or if complications develop, it can be symptomatic. Reveal jaundice, abdominal pain and palpable mass; rupture of the cysts in the liver will spill contents into the bile duct and peritoneal cavity and lungs causing urticaria, fever and anaphylactic reactions
Blood tests: indirect hemagglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or ELISA. This is commonly known as hydatid serology.
Ultrasound and CT scan tests are usually diagnostic of hydatid cysts. These also help to characterize and delineates the exact anatomical location of the cyst before surgery.
In the case of cystic echinococcosis, if liver cysts are large, superficially located and single, they have a chance to rupture. A total pericystectomy or partial resection of the affected organ is indicated. Liver hydatid cysts can often be tackled with laparoscopy. Surgery is undertaken after a course of medical therapy. Meticulous and careful surgical intervention is needed to avoid and prevent spillage of the fluid into the abdomen. Inadvertent surgery can cause spread of the disease in the abdomen.
My team are adept at handling both cases of AE and CE very effectively.Authored by Dr. Deepak Varma, MBBS, MS (General Surgery)
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